GLOSSARY

Term used in IT and Telecom

Broadband

High-speed Internet above 50Mbps

 

IP Camera

Surveillance camera,with HD digital technology, uses the data network to transmit images

 

Datacenter

Location specially constructed to store data servers,Cloud Computing,etc.

 

Datacenter container

Datacenter constructed in a maritime standard container

 

EPON

Internet transmission technology via optical fiber, speed of 1 Gigabit per second

 

Fusion equipment

Also called Fusion Machine: it is the equipment that joins two ends of an optical fiber, by melting the material

 

Measurement equipment

Also known as OTDR, it is the device that can identify ruptures in the optical fiber network, measure signal, help to identify transmission failures

 

FTTH

Fiber to The Home, i.e., means the technology that transmits Internet via optical fiver and takes this fiber from the central to the subscriber house

 

Gateway

A Gateway can be defined as a translator, which can change a common analogical telephone into an IP Telephone, that is, which can make calls via Internet

 

GPON

Internet transmission technology via optical fiber, speed of 2.5 Gigabit per second

 

IaaS

Infrastructure as a service: where the client pays for the data network and its telecommunication infrastructure per month

 

Intranet

It is a “private Internet”,where the information is accessed as in the Internet, but is restricted only to the internal users of a company

 

IP-PBX

It can be a PABX central that uses data network and Internet to make phone calls

 

LAN

They are local networks, that is, data network inside your company

 

ONU

Fiber modem that is in the Internet subscriber’s house (or company) to receive the signal via FTTH

 

Video management platform

It is a software that handles the images generated by the IP cameras, as they are change the images in bits & bytes. Generally, they have the function of viewing, recording the images, recovering what was recorded,etc.

 

Rack

It is a metallic cabinet where the equipment is inserted

 

IP Microwave Radio

An equipment that transmits Internet data via wireless network, but uses a licensed (paid) frequency at Anatel.

 

Router

We cay say it is a “router”, that is, a device that can forward a message from a location to another, for example, when you send an e-mail from a person to another, the router can know where to send

 

 Server

Computer that stores and processes data, that is, the e-mails for example need a server that can keep the sent, transmitted messages,etc.

 

 Splitter

We call “splitter” (divider) the equipment installed in the optical fiber networks that can split the Internet signal to 2 or 4 or 8 fibers

 

 Storage

Storage means the data storage system, of smart HD discs, that can usually storage large quantities of information

 

Switch

Switch is a device where several network cables are connected, and make the signal commuting between the computers in a same network

 

ICT

(I) Information and (C) communication (T) technology: aggregates the computing and telecommunication technologies.

 

Wi-fi

Wi-Fi (wireless Fidelity): wireless technology, able to transmit Internet to computers and cell phones without the need of connection via cable

GLOSSARY

Terms in Optical Fiber

APON-ATM

Passive Optical Network: initial PON standard, which uses 155 Mbps (based on ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode), which was essentially designed for companies. Is is the ITU-T standard.

 

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode: it is a computing technology in telecommunication networks, which transport data in cells of 53 Bytes. It has interfaces with several speeds and is indicated for voice, video and data traffic.

 

BPON

Broadband Passive Optical Network: PON standard, which followed the APON, enhancing it. Is is the ITU-T standard.

 

FSAN

Full Service Access Networks: work group that started the development to take access via fiber to houses

 

FTTB

Fiber-To-The-Building: it is a way to take a communication network to the user’s building, but not a house, by means of optical fiber. In the final section up to the user’s house/company, another non-optical means is used (twisted pair, coaxial cable, wireless network or electrical network).

 

FTTC

Fiber-To-The-Curb: is a method to take a communication network until next the user’s house. In the final section, the coaxial cable or twisted pair is used.

 

FTTH

Fiber-To-The-Home: is a method to take a communication network until the user’s house via optical fiber.

 

FTTN

Fiber-To-The-Node: is a method to take a communication network until a switchboard on the street. In the final section up to the user’s house, the coaxial cable or twisted pair is used.

 

FTTP

Fiber-To-The-Premise (Fiber up to the Client premises): general term used to refer to the technologies PON, FTTB, and FTTH.

 

FTTx

General term used to refer to the technologies Pon, FTTB, FTTC, FTTH and FTTN.

 

ITU

International Telecommunication Union: UN agency responsible for issues of information technology and telecommunications

 

ITU-T

International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication Standardization Sector: ITU division responsible for the preparation of standardization documents in the telecommunication area.

 

OLT

Optical Line Terminal: it is the equipment of a PON network that is in the service provider operational center and provides two main functions: it converts the electrical signal from the service provider network into optical fiber signal and coordinates the signal distribution and reception to the devices that are in the another end of the PON network – the ONUs and ONTs.

 

ONT

Optical Network Termination: it is a type of equipment that terminates the optical network and provides connection interface (data, voice or video) to the user.

 

POTS

Plain Old Telephone Service (Former Normal Telephony Service): Refers to technology and components of the former telephony service. This is the term used to identify that an ONU has voice interface to connect to an analogical telephone.

 

PON

Passive Optical Network: point-multipoint network architecture that uses optical fiber in the “last mile” (final path up to the client’s house). It is composed of an optical line terminal (OLT), located in the service provider operation center, by several optical fiber splitters (splitters), distributed along the network, and by optical network units (ONU) next to the houses, or inside the final user’s houses.

 

POS

Passive Optical Splitter: device with an input fiber and several others in the output. There can be splitters of 1 fiber for 4, 1 for 8, 1 for 16, and also 1 for 128. It is installed between the OLT and the ONUs or ONTs. It is the device responsible for the passive optional network branch.

 

WDM

Wavelength-Division Multiplexing: it is a technology that allow the communication by means several light beams with different wavelengths in a same optical fiber. With that technology, a PON network transmits in a wavelength and receives in another.

GLOSSARY

Terms in IP Electronic Surveillance

ActiveX

Standard that allows the Software components to interact in a network environment.

 

ARP

Address Resolution Protocol: used to associate an IP address to a MAC address in the hardware

 

AVI

Audio Video Interleave: A video format that supports the simultaneous audio and video playback.

 

Bitmap

Image representation time in which each point of the image is associated to a value – 1 bit, which could assume the value 0 or 1. Currently, each image point can be associated up to 24 bits.

 

Bit rate

The bit rate (which can be measured in kbit/s or Mbit/s) defines the number of units of bits/time.

 

Server Client

It is the relationship between two computer programs in which one program, the client, makes a service request to the other program, the server, which responds to the request.

 

Codec

Encoder/Encoder: General term used to define the ENCODER and DECODER. In CFTV IP, it is used to zip and unzip analogical video signal, enabling this analogical video signal to be recognized in an IP system.

 

DHCP

Protocol that automatize and manages the attribution of IP addresses for network devices in a network.

 

DNS

Domain Name System: Locates and converts Internet domain names in IP Addresses.

Example: 192.168.1.140, is easier to remember if is recognized by  www.xyzxyz.com.br

 

Domain

The domains can also be used by organizations that want to centralize their computers management (Windows). The domain server is the server that authenticates the users in the network.

 

Ethernet

Ethernet is a type of local network technology. Lan Ethernet usually uses a cable type UTP, and the most common systems offer transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps.

 

Firewall

Basically, it is a barrier between the networks that assures that only authorized users can access from a network to another.

 

FTP

File Transfer Protocol: Type of application protocol that uses the TCP/IP protocols, used to change files between computers/servers in networks.

 

Frame

A frame is each one of the frames or fixed images of an audiovisual product (video).

 

FPS

Frames per second: It is the measurement of the frequency the video flow is updated. An image in real time is transmitted at 30 fps (frames per second).

 

Full Duplex

It is when the data transmission occurs at the same time in two directions simultaneously.

Example: a phone call.

 

Gateway

It acts as an input point to another network usually associated to a switch or router.

 

H264

Compression format also known as MPEG-4 Part 10.H.264 has a set of advanced compression tools, aiming to offer a better video resolution without increasing the bit-rate, thus saving bandwidth and costs with storage.

 

Half duplex

It is when the data transmission occurs in both directions, but one information at a time.

Example: common intercom.

 

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language: HTML is the set of symbols or codes entered in a file that will be displayed in the Web browser.

 

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol: A set of rules to exchange files in the Web.

 

HTTPS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol over SSL: HTTPS is a Web protocol used for encrypt and decrypt users pages requests and the pages returned by the server.

 

HUB

A hub (network) is used to connect several devices to a network. The hub transmits all the data to all the devices connected to it, while a switch only transmits the data to a specifically designed device.

 

IEEE 802 11

A family of wireless LANs standards. The standard 802.11 supports transmission of 1 or 2 Mbit/s in the band 2.4 GHz

 

IP

Internet Protocol: Protocol responsible for the packages routing between two systems that use the family of TCP/IP protocols. The information transmission occurs by means of small packages of bits that contain the data that are being sent and the address to which they are directed.

 

IP Address

An IP address is a sequence of digits (example: 192.168.1.1) that represents the address of a computer that is connected to a network.

 

Kbits

Kilobits per second (measurement of bits rate)

 

LAN

Local Area Network (local computers network)

 

MAC Address

Media Access Control address: Physical address that represents the network device. It should be unique, that is, no board at any where or from any manufacturer must have the same number as another one, such as a DNA sequence.

 

Mbits

Megabits per second: The megabit per second is a data transmission unit equivalent to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second

 

Megapixel

It is a measurement of pixel. Each megapixel has 1 million pixels. As a definition, every image must follow the ratio 4:3; thus, more pixels were added to the image to achieve this ratio.

 

MPEG4

MPEG-4 is a group of audio and video encoding standard and related technologies. The MPEG-4 standard is used mainly in the Web distribution, CD, telephony and television broadcast. One of the greatest advantages of working with the compression format MPEG-4 is that, in addition of working updating only parts of the image that have been changed, it is also able to handle parts of the image as objects.

 

Multicast

Bandwidth conversion technology that reduces the use of band preventing a single flow of information simultaneously to several network destinations.

 

Ping

Basic network program used to check the status of a host or network device. For example: check if a certain network address is busy or not, or if the host at this address is responding normally.

 

Pixel

Picture Element: Pixel is the smallest digital image measurement, with the measurement of 1x10s pixels are grouped by color, density to make an image.

 

PoE

Power over Ethernet: PoE provides power to a network device (IP camera,switch,etc.) through the same UIP cable used for the network connection.

 

PPTP

Point to Point Tunneling Protocol: Protocol that allows corporations to extend their own network through private “tunnels” via public Internet. Thus, a corporation can effectively use a Wide Area Network (WAN) as a single network and a large Area Network (LAN). This type of interconnection is known as virtual private network (VPN).

 

Protocol

A special set of rules that control how two devices communicate with each other.

 

Progressive Scan

The progressive scan, unlike interlaced video, it scans the entire image, line per line, at each 1/16 second. In an surveillance application, it can be critical in viewing details of a moving image.

 

QoS

Quality of Service The QoS is the means to assure a level of quality for the traffic in a network. For example: constant checking of the bandwidth, low latency, loss of package,etc.

 

Resolution

The image resolution is an average of the detailing level that a digital image can have. The higher the resolution, the higher the details level. The resolution can be specified both for the number of pixels of the image (xxx megapixel) and also by the number of lines.

Another way the check the image resolution is using the measurement CIF (CIF, QCIF, 2CIF, 4CIF…)

 

Router

A network devices used to make the protocols switching, the switching among different computers networks, providing the communication between computers distant from each other. The router main characteristics is to select the most appropriate route to transfer the received packages.

 

Server

It is the computer that manages and provides programs, and information to the other computers connected in network. The server can contain any number of server and client programs. A Web server is a computer program that provides the files or the HTML pages requested to the client (browser).

 

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol: A protocol that supports the monitoring of devices connected to networks at any condition that assure administrative attention.

 

Sockets

Identifier of a determined service in a specific node of a network. The socket consists of a mode address and an number of port that identifies the service. For example, port 80 in an Internet node indicates a Web server.

 

SSLTLS

Secure Socket Layer Transport Layer Security: These two protocols (the SSL is followed by the TLS) are encrypted protocol that provide secured communication by a network. SSL is usually used in the HTTP to form HTTPS, as used in the Internet, for example, to make electronic financial transactions. SSL uses public key certificates to check the server identity.

 

Sub network

Subdivision of an IP network. Each sub network has its own network identifier and exclusive sub network. The sub network mask is the part of the IP address that informs a network router how to find a sub network to which the data packages must be delivered

 

Switch

A switch is a network device that filters and transfers network segments together, selecting a path to send a data unit to its closest destination.

 

TCP

Transmission Control protocol: TCP is a protocol designed to connection, that is, it makes the connection to be kept until all the information packages have been successfully exchanged. It is used together the IP Protocol to transmit data as packages between computer through the network.

 

UDP

The UDP is a communication protocol that offers a limited service for data exchange in a network that used the IP Protocol. The advantage of the UDP is that is does not need to deliver all the data and can discard network packages. For example, it can be used in the live video broadcasting, because in this case there is no need to retain information.

 

Unicast

Unicast is an address for a package made to a single destination. The address is point-to-point. At each new information input/exchange, a new section is open, increasing the network traffic.

 

UPnPTM

Set of computer network protocols that allows the automatic point-to-point detection of devices in the network

 

URL

Uniform Resource Locator: It is the same as address in the network.

 

VPN

Virtual private network: It is a private communication network usually used by a company or a set of companies and/or institution, built o n a public communication network. The VPN is widely used to connect a remote computer to a corporate network, or example, via direct telephone lines or via Internet.

 

WAN

Wide Area Network: Telecommunication network that interconnects users geographically remote users

 

Web Server

A Web Server is a programs that enables the web browsers to recover computing files connected to Internet. The Web server listens to the Web browsers requests and, when receiving a request of file, sens it back to the browser.

 

WEP

Wired Equivalent Privacy: A wireless security protocol, specified in the standard IEEE 802.11 designed to provide a local wireless network (WLAN) at a security and privacy level comparable to that usually expected for a wired LAN.

 

WINS

Windows Internet Naming Service: Part of the Microsoft Windows NT Server, the WINS manages the names management and locations of the workstation to IP addresses, without the user or the administrator need to interfere in any changes of configuration.

GLOSSARY

Terms in Electronic Analogical Surveillance

Auto-iris

Lens opening control, it can by the DC or VIDEO type.

 

BLC

‘Back Light Compensation’, function to improve the image compensating the back light.

 

BNC

‘Bayonet Neill Concelman’, standard connector for coaxial cables.

 

CCD

Change Coupled Device, technology used for collection and translation of images in to electrical signals.

 

CCO

Control and Operations Center, STH security operational room

 

CRT

‘Cathode Ray Tube’ tube of cathode rays

 

CFTVd

Digital Television Closed Circuit System

 

DSP

Digital Signal processor, image processing system used in the CFTVd cameras

 

DVN

‘Digital Video Network’

 

DVR

‘Digital Video Recorder’

 

EPROM 

‘Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory’ non-volatile memory, type PROM, which can be erased by ultraviolet light or and rewritten after that

 

ETEs

Specific Technical Specifications

 

ETGs

General Technical Specifications

 

Firmware

It is a combination of software and hardware; ROM, PROM e EPROM memories that have data or programs written are firmware

 

HD

‘Hard Disk’

 

IHM

Man-Machine Interface

 

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display

 

MD

Descriptive Memorial

 

PDA

Personal Digital Assistant

 

PROM

‘Programmable Read Only Memory’, non-volatile memory, type ROM, which can be written by the user, and can be read, but not changed or removed.

 

ROM

‘Read Only Memory’, non-volatile memory, pre-written at the manufacturing, once written it can be read but not changed or removed

 

SCSI

‘Small Computer System Interface’, interface with large capacity to transfer data

 

WDR

‘Wide Dynamic Range’, light compensation technology with great capacity to act in a large dynamic range, generating great improvement in the image as a whole.

GLOSSARY

Terms in Wireless

Anatel

National telecommunication agency, an entity that regulates the telecommunication sector in Brazil.

 

AES

Encryption method used in radios

 

DES

Encryption method used in radios

 

WEP

A encryption method widely used in radios, very known due its vulnerabilities

 

WAP

A encryption method widely used in radios, very robust, recommended for corporate networks

 

Bps

Bytes per second,their multiples are kBps, MBps, TBps

 

BSU

Base Station Unit (Radio Base)

 

RSU

Base Station Unit (Client Base)

 

IDU

Indoor Unit – Part of the radio that must be installed indoor

 

ODU

Outdoor Unit – part of the radio that must be installed next to an antenna (outdoor)

 

CPE

Costumer Premises Equipment, equipment that must be installed as the Base client.

 

Downlink = DL

Link from the Base to CPE, data transmitted from the Base to CPE

 

Uplink = UL

Link from the CPE to the Base , data transmitted from the CPE to the Base

 

DSSS

Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum, way of occupation of the channel through the signal spreading technology

 

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, way of occupation of the channel through the multiple orthogonal frequency technique

 

802.1x

Secure authentication method with support to the database query

 

FDD

Frequency Division Duplexing, technique where two channels are used, one for transmission and another for reception

 

TDD

Time Division Duplexing, technique where only one channel is used for transmission or reception

 

FEC

Forward Correction error, error correction technique

 

LOS

Line of sight, situation of linkage with line of sight

 

nLOS

Non line of sight, situation of linkage with line of sight partially obstructed

 

NLOS

Non line of sight, situation of linkage without line of sight

 

POP

Point of presence, represents a location where there are equipment installed.

 

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, High speed modulation and low robustness

 

WiFi

Wireless Fidelity

 

WiMAX

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

 

WLAN

Wireless metropolitan Area Network

 

WMAN

Wireless Metropolitan Area Network

 

BPSK

Binary Phase Shift Keying, Low speed modulation and high robustness

 

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, Medium speed modulation and medium robustness

 

dBm

Used to represent power in logarithmic scale

 

dBi

Used to represent the gain of an antenna, it is directly proportional to the antenna defectiveness.

 

mW

Power unit, one thousandth of a Watt

 

IEEE 802.16

Standard IEEE for WiMAX, there are several sub standards 802.16d for fixed access,802.16e for mobile access.

 

IEEE 802.11

Standard IEEE for Wi-Fi, there are several sub standards, such as 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, etc.

REGISTER IN OUR NEWSLETTER

Be updated with the news and promotions by WDC.